Recorders were known as early as the Middle Ages, but became the premier wind instruments by the time of the Renaissance. They exist in large families; sizes vary from contra-bass to a tiny garklein. Recorders were known for their expressive tone. They have a whistle mouthpiece, seven finger holes at the front and a thumb hole at the back of the instrument.


This was a relatively short-lived wind instrument from the 16th century. Krummhorns came in families, from soprano to the great bass, and were named for their curved shape. They are descendants of the bagpipe family. The krummhorns employ a double reed covered by a mouthpiece cap and have a narrow. cylindrical bore which produces a buzzy, raucous sound.


The psaltery is a Medieval stringed instrument that can be plucked with the fingers or played with a bow.

The Dumbec, coming from the Middle East, is a single-headed drum, with a head made from animal hide. Of course, what band would be complete without a tambourine!

This instrument was developed during the 15th century. It is a sub-group of the harpsichord family, a keyboard instrument with plucked strings, whereas the fortepiano and its successors have strings that are struck by hammers. They are usually found as the second keyboard of a virginal. The strings, unlike a harpsichord, run diagonally in  front of the player or parallel to the keyboard.




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